Idaho . . . State 43

Idaho's official flag was adopted in 1907. The flag is deep blue with the state seal in the center surrounded by a yellow band. The seal pictures a miner carrying a pick and wielding a shovel and a woman carrying the scales of justice, symbolizing liberty and justice, the motto "ESTO PERPETUA" two full, yellow cornucopias, an elk head atop a shield (picturing a river, settlers, a fir tree, and mountainous land), a sheaf of grain, green grass, and a blue sky. The flag is surrounded by a yellow fringe on three sides.

Idaho is the 43rd state and joined the nation in 1890. Idaho's state capital and largest city is Boise.

Idaho is shaped like a logger's boot and logging and mining are big industries in the state. Most of us know Idaho for its potatoes and Idaho's soil, water, clean air and climate provides the perfect growing condition for potatoes. Major agriculture in Idaho are cattle, potatoes, dairy products, wheat, sugar beets, barley. The main industries are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, silver and other mining, tourism.

Idaho has a rugged landscape with some of the largest natural areas in the country and about 1/3 of the state is forested. Within these areas are two of the longest rivers in the nation that lie entirely in one state, called the Clearwater and the Salmon. Idaho is called the Gem of the Mountains, and there is a wild, spectacular beauty in the rapid rivers, beautiful evergreen forests, and many steep waterfalls and canyons that break in between the rugged Rocky Mountains. Idaho's many natural attractions provide outdoor recreational resources that attract more than 6 million visitors each year.

More than 30,000 acres of Yellowstone National Park are in eastern Idaho and in southern Idaho is the famous Craters of the Moon National Monument. Big-game hunting, trout fishing, camping and winter sports are very popular outdoor activities. The winter season is long and cold so skiing is a hot recreational activity with about 20 ski resorts across the state.

Idaho has four season climate, but conditions can change fast, especially in the mountains. In the Plains and valleys summers are pleasant and warm and evenings cool. Fall is much cooler and winter conditions usually bring a lot of snow and cold conditions. Summer high temperatures on average are 75 degrees, while winter highs in the 30s. The average annual rainfall approaches 26 inches. Mountains in the south, central and north are cooler throughout the year with cold and snowy conditions fall and winter. Mean summer temperature are near 64 degrees, dropping to around 30 degrees in winter. The average rainfall in the higher elevations of the Rockies (central and north) exceeds 60 inches, and snowfall is usually heavy.

Idaho has 44 counties:
Adams - Bannock - Bear Lake - Benewah - Bingham - Blaine - Boise - Bonner - Bonneville - Boundary - Butte - Camas - Canyon - Caribou - Cassia - Clark - Clearwater - Custer - Elmore - Franklin - Fremont - Gem - Gooding - Idaho - Jefferson - Jerome - Kootenai - Latah - Lemhi - Lewis - Lincoln - Madison - Minidoka - Nez - Perce - Oneida - Owyhee - Payette - Power - Shoshone - Teton - Twin Falls - Valley - Washington

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